Among the P90X wide spectrum of waves thus Zig Pulse generated, those with longer wavelengths travel faster and further than the shorter waves. Hence, the more complex and high amplitude waves generated in a thunder storm arrive at the coast travelling several thou¬sand of kilometers as a "swell" which contains mainly Sketchers Shape UPS the long waves, the shorter ones having been Reebok Easy Tone dissipated on the ocean surface. Unfortunately, scientists have not Skechers yet unravelled the mechanism of the transfer of energy from the wind to the surface of the Shape UPS occan and as such considerable theoretical and experimental works has yet to be done to be able to predict precisely the high of the "swell" which crosses the shore as a greater storm surge in a severe thunder storm or a cyclone causing collosal damage MBT Shoes to life and MBT property.
So far no reliable and simple method for measuring ocean wave heights was avail¬able particularly at large distances away from the coast. Recently, a new radio method of estimating the wave Reebok Easytone heights has been developed using Reebok high frequency radiowaves beamed towards the ocean surface from a high elevation on the coast. Such radiowaves reflected from the wave fronts reinforce each other to give a strong return signal when the wavelength of the radiowave is a multiple of half-wave length of the sea wave. One of the latest and improved versions of Reebok Zig Pulse this technique, known as the sky-wave radar, enabled ocean scientists to send radiowaves bounced forward by the ionosphere to strike the ocean surface at a great distance of 2000-3000 km. These radio signals rctracc their path and arc received back after reflection from the ocean wavefroii' with appreciable single strength at an appropriate frequency of the radiowave. The sky wave Radar has enormous potential as a powerful tool for scan¬ning large areas of ocean at great distances and measure the ocean wavelengths. Indeed, this technique can also be used for measuring the wave heights in the cyclonic region on the occan and send warning signals to be the lowlying coastal areas in case the wave heights are Shape UP Skechers so high as to give rise to a devastating storm surge. Improved and sophisticated versions Skechers Shape UPS of this technique could be used to detect and watch movements of fleets of vessels which will be particularly valuable in defence applications.
Unlike the waves, which are purely surface phenomena, the w ind on the surface also generates surface currents which involve literally the transport of occan water unlike the waves. Occan circulation is also influenced by the 24-hourly rotation of the earth and also by the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon. The Coriolis effect of the earth's rotation on the sub-surface Sketchers Shape UPS currents in the ocean results in a clockwise deflection in the northern and anticlockwise in the southern hemispheres in the tropical zone.
While every one knows the difference between climate and weather very few. including scientists, realise that a similar distinction applies to occan currents. As Shape UP Skechers advanced techniques were not available till recently, we have known so far only the P90X average features of the occan movements which we may call "climate" circulation. With the modem techniques, it was shown that there is a fine structure superposed on this climate circulation which varies from day-to-day like the weather and which cannot be easily predicted. Synoptic charts of ocean currents are narrow, fast and winding, while the climatic Skechers Shape UPS maps arc smooth, broad and slow. The later arc used for long-term studies of the effect of ocean currents on coastal erosion and Shape UPS climatic conditions, whereas the synoptic maps are used to pilot ships and submarines to follow the currents to gain in speed. The current system in the ocean, like the wind system, tends to circulate and form gyres which follow generally the wind circulation. The theory of ocean circulation developed during last thirty years, explains reasonably well the experimental data. Model studies Reebok in the laboratory helped scientists to simulate the MBT formation of currents like Skechers Gulf Stream in North Atlantic, Kuroshio in North Pacific and Agulhas in Indian Ocean. Some of the detailed studies on Gulf stream indicated that occasionally the main stream forms a smaller loop of a few hundred Reebok Zig Pulse kilometers which breaks off and separates as an Reebok Easytone eddy and gradually weakens. This Zig Pulse spectacular discovery involving sometimes transport Reebok Easy Tone of tens of millions of tons of water from North Atlantic to sub-tropical regions along with its living organisms is of consider¬able importance to the biology of the sea. Such eddies constituted the biggest natu¬ral transport of part of the ocean along with its marine MBT Shoes organisms and econ-systcm.
The surface of the sea is highly saline and hence has lesser surface tension which makes it easy for the formation of froth and foam when waves break up near Reebok Easy Tone the coast. The process of formation and breaking up of waves result in the formation of enormous quantities of foam and tiny droplets of water, containing dissolved salts and organic matter from the surface of the surfacc of the sea. These are called aerosols. The wind and the general atmospheric circulating system carries the aerosols to high levels and disperses them till they condense into Sketchers Shape UPS tiny crystalline ice particles. It is therefore obvious that rainfall in Skechers coastal areas contain substantial amount of sodium Zig Pulse chloride.
One of the most interesting results of ocean science is the great abundance of Shape UP Skechers car¬bon dioxide in the dissolved gases beneath the surface of the ocean, being nearly four times the concentration of nitrogen and nine times that of oxygen. Thus, even though, the atmosphere and ocean constantly interact with each other, strangely the composi¬tion of gases in the oceans is totally different from that in the atmosphere where nitro¬gen is four times oxygen and carbon dioxide is an insignificant minor constituent. Indeed, it is the predominance of carbon dioxide in the dissolved gases which explains the great abundance of biological life in the ocean as carbon dioxide is the most vital and essential ingredient for the growth of marine organisms. When this abundant quantity of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide in ocean waters is supplemented by a Shape UPS rich wealth of nutrients, MBT and the entire volume is illuminated by radiation from the sun. marine plant life MBT Shoes multiplies rapidly by photosynthesis and initiates the series of food chains leading to a rich harvest of higher Skechers Shape UPS forms of marine life. Oxygen, which Reebok is rich in the upper strata of the ocean is continuously depleted by marine organisms and as such the concentration reaches a minimum at a level where P90X the biological life is in great abundance.
Man has always been fascinated by the innumerable variety of waves observed on ponds, streams and oceans. Little did we realise that all these waves have one com¬mon feature that they do not transport the water but only the energy. Atmospheric winds interacting with the surface of the ocean give rise to complex system Reebok Zig Pulse of waves which propagate over long Reebok Easytone distances over the ocean surface with little loss of energy.
Salinity of the sea has a profound effect on physiology of marine organisms which depends on the nature of the biological members. By a process, known as osmosis the body fluid of the marine organism interacts with the saline water in the sea and attains an equilibrium, enabling the fish to Skechers survive the salt water environment. Unless adopted to the freshwater environment, salt water fish would not be able to survive in low salinity water or freshwater as it tends to inflate the animal with an inflow of freshwater in order to equalise the concentrations.
Having reviewed the structure and origin of the Occan basins and the modem techniques designed and developed for exploration and scientific study of the occan. it is appro¬priate to examine now some of the Reebok Easytone physical properties of the ocean and the part played by them in ocean currents, ocean energy, coastal erosion, marine life and marine ecosystem. The water wealth of the world is unevenly distributed with 97.3% in the oceans and the rest 2.7% on the land of which almost 85% is contributed by fresh water in Shape UPS glaciers and ice caps which are the largest freshwater resources on land. Undoubtedly, detailed studies of the spatial and temporal variations of the basic Reebok Easy Tone physical parameters, such as temperature, salinity, density, surface and physical Zig Pulse parameters, such as temperature, salinity, density, surface and deep occan currents will lead to a better understanding of the physical processes taking place at the inter¬faces between ocean water, ocean Skechers Shape UPS bottom, atmosphere and coastal land.
To the naked eye. it appears that only the surface of the ocean is disturbed by waves and is in perpetual motion, but the fact of the matter is the mass of ocean waters is far from being at rest. Indeed the gigantic mass of water in the ocean is in Reebok Zig Pulse perpetual motion and constitutes a complex system with several physical and chem¬ical variables changing rapidly in space and time. While ocean surface currents are mainly driven by wind at the surface, the MBT Shoes origin of ocean currents at different depths can be traced to several sources such as rotation of earth, changcs P90X in position of moon and sun relative to earth, energy generated by solar MBT radiation, and other additional sources of energy like earthquakes, Skechers tsunamies. volcanic eruptions, water and sedi¬ment transport from rivers etc.
The characteristic feature of Sketchers Shape UPS the ocean is its Shape UP Skechers high salinity which makes it the rich¬est Reebok source of numerous elements and minerals. Over millenia of years, oceans have accumulated salts from the land brought by rivers and became highly saline. Water is unique in the sense that it is a good solvent and as such many salts are present in it in a dissolved state. However, it is interesting to note that the relative concentrations of various salts remain surprisingly constant inspite of the systematic and rapid decrease of the total salinity with depth. The zone up to a depth of 50G-I000 feet where there is a continuous decrease of salinity with depth is called halocline. Below this depth salinity remains practically constant. Estimates of salinity of seawater are make by chloride ion concentration which is easy to measure in the laboratory or on board ocean-going research vessels.